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Physics 202: Experimental Physics (Spring 2013 thru Spring 2016)
​​​​Welcome to the Physics 202 wiki site!

You can get started and add content to this page by clicking Edit at the top of this page, or you can learn more about wiki sites by clicking How To Use This Wiki Site. Visitors can view the information posted related to Physics 202 lab experiments, which are listed below.  These experiment are being updated as we do them during the Spring 2018 semester.

Equations

Since this wiki site is lacking an equation editor, we will have to make equations separately and then upload them as images.  There is a simple LaTex Online Equation Editor that can be used for this.

Syllabus for Physics 202: Experimental Physics

outline_V3.htmloutline_V3.html

MATLAB  information [to do: replace with python scripts]

Tutorial: Least squares fitting in MATLAB
Further Information:  Simulated Blackbody Spectrum

Laboratory Experiments and Data Analysis

Old pages from Spring 2014, 2015, 2016

Experiment: Resistors

The objective of this experiment is to learn about four-wire resistance measurement and contact resistance.

Experiment: X-ray diffraction 

The objective of this project is to determine the element of two unidentified pieces of wire from their crystal structures.

Experiment: Solar_Spectrum_2014

An investigation into spectrometry and the question of whether the sun is a near-perfect black body: correcting for efficiencies and neutral density filters, applying the corrections into the experimentally collected solar spectrum, and creating a model reference spectrum for comparison.


Experiment:  Thin Films

This experiment includes thin film deposition methods and several film thickness measurement techniques.  Currently we have information on Aluminum thin film thickness measurement by sheet resistance, and measurement of organic film thickness by absorbance and reflectance. Also see Organic Photovoltaic Cells for more information on organic semiconductor thin films.

Experiment: Organic Photovoltaic Cells_2014

Solar cells can be fabricated from organic dye layers.  An early version of a two-layer organic photovoltaic cell was developed by C.W. Tang at Kodak in 1986.  It is composed of two evaporated layers of complementary materials that form the donor and acceptor layers of the cell.  The cell is deposited on glass coated with Indium-Tin Oxide (ITO) and the two dye layers are capped with an evaporated metal electrode.  Typical metal electrodes included Silver and Aluminum.  We used copper phthalocyanine as the donor layer and C60 as the acceptor layer.  This is similar to the cells made by Mutolo et al.


Experiment: Polymer Solar Cell

The objective of this experiment is to fabricate and test polymer solar cells based on the bulk heterojunction concept, which was originally introduced by Yu et al.  This page describes cells made from the polymer P3HT, which is a donor material, and PCBM, which is an acceptor, following a procedure similar to that of  Li et al.

Experiment: Thermal Noise in a Resistor

Electrical noise is present in any resistor even when no net current is flowing. This is known as Johnson noise, and it can be used to measure Boltzmann’s constant, since the variance of the noise is proportional to both R (the resistance) and T (the temperature in degrees K).

Experiment: Nuclear Magetic Resonance

In pulsed NMR, protons precess at the Larmor frequency in a strong magnetic field B0. A pulse of radio frequency radiation is tuned to the resonance frequency with a duration that rotates the proton spin either 90 degrees or 180 degrees.  A pickup coil detects spins that have been flipped into the x-y plane, perpendicular to B0. NMR spectroscopy typically involves a train of several pulses. In order to measure the relaxation time T1, a 180 degree pulse prepares the spins by flipping them to their highest energy state.  Then a 90 degree pulse is used to  flip them "in-plane" where they begin to radiate.  The relaxation time T1 varying the delay time between the two pulses.

Further details of this measurement and of other pulse train measurements such as spin-echo (also known as Hahn echo) are described in the page linked above.


Old pages from Spring 2013

Experiment: Solar Spectrum

This lab involves calibrating the efficiency versus wavelength of a compact grating spectrometer using a tungsten-halogen lamp as a blackbody source. The spectrometer is then used to collect a solar spectrum of  irradiance vs. wavelength that can be compared to the known spectrum of sunlight, corrected for the air mass at a given time and place.



Experiment:
Organic Photovoltaic Cells
Solar cells can be fabricated from organic dye layers.  An early version of a two-layer organic photovoltaic cell was developed by C.W. Tang at Kodak in 1986.  It is composed of two evaporated layers of complementary materials that form the donor and acceptor layers of the cell.  The cell is deposited on glass coated with Indium-Tin Oxide (ITO) and the two dye layers are capped with an evaporated metal electrode.  Typical metal electrodes included Silver and Aluminum.  We used copper phthalocyanine as the donor layer and C60 as the acceptor layer.  This is similar to the cells made by Mutolo et al.